The division has up-to-date laboratory equipment along with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) facility. Following are the main activities of the Division
- Departmental Research projects
- Collaborative Research Projects with other Divisions
- Pre-Clinical Toxicology (under Centre for Advanced Research in Pre-Clinical Toxicology, NIN, Hyd)
- Histopathology opinion / review for industry.
- Surgical Pathology Services – Local hospitals & diagnostics.
- Hematology and Clinical Pathology – Staff and families.
- Role of type of dietary fat in the etiopathogenesis of carcinogen – induced breast neoplasm in fischer female rats” showed that n6 rich diet has deleterious effects in relation to tumorogenesis while n3 alone diet has a better outlook with respect to the same. Apart from n3 diet, n3 + n6 diet was also observed to be beneficial. SFA and TFA diets that are associated with increased incidence of CVD and other chronic diseases do not seem to show a similar trend with respect to carcinogen induced mammary neoplasms. Another study on “Effect of dietary nutrients on subchronic and chronic nephrotoxicity in Sprague Dawley (SD) Rats” showed no significant changes in any of the parameters studied.
- Collaborative projects were varied and dealt with subjects relating to fluorosis, diabetes, health implications of dietary coconut oils, studies in NIN obese rat, development of rat model for ulcerative colitis, biocompatibility of polyelectrolyte complexes and wound healing studies. Clinical pathology evaluation in human studies included pesticide exposure by agricultural formers and B12 deficiency studies in pregnant women.
Present Research Activities
- From the Division of Pathology, the “Role of Aldose Reductase (AR) in human cancer chemo-drug resistance: Role of dietary ‘AR’ inhibitors as adjuvants” is being looked into and to date it was seen that there was a significant difference in the AR levels in RBCs in all individual tumor types as compared to Controls. The AKR1B10 levels in tumor and non-tumor tissues, showed some significant trends. However, as the sample size ‘n’ ‘ is varying, no definite conclusion can be reached. Further sample collection is in progress. AR levels as well as activity in all above tissue samples is to be done. Also, estimation of cytokines NFkb, TNFα, IL1b,IL6 etc. to be done in samples to be collected. Another study on “Effect of dietary nutrients on subchronic and chronic hepatotoxicity in Sprague Dawley (SD) Rats” would be undertaken.
- Other projects include “Maternal vitamin B12 restriction induced changes in body adiposity, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in WNIN rat offspring: Molecular basis of the changes”, “Biomarkers for transplacental genotoxic effects and their chemoprevention (INDO-BULGARIAN PROJECT)” and “Role of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway in vitamin D deficiency induced muscle atrophy and hypoinsulinemia”.
- Electron Microscopy Studies: This facility was installed in late 2009 and after standardization, to date, a total of 8 projects involving SEM studies have been done on a collaborative basis. The major public health importance study done by ICMR on the request of Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India, on “stored rice samples” in collaboration with other Divisions of the institute was carried out. Further, 4 more collaborative projects are being done.
- Pre-Clinical Toxicology: A total of 22 projects were executed with Clinical Pathology, Haematology and Histopathology contributions in them which included vaccines, ayurvedic bhasmas, proprietary molecules, anti-tumor agents, stem cells etc. At present, 4 projects are being handled which would be completed in near future. Also, with respect to Genetically Modified Foods Safety Evaluation including allergenicity, human serum sample testing methodology is being pursued.
- Services: Histopathology services were rendered to various private (Reddy Labs, Virchow Biotech, RCC etc) and governmental agencies (Indian Immunologicals, IIIM-Jammu, KEM Hospital, IICT etc.) and 11 projects were handled.
Thrust areas for future
A. Basic Research
- Cancer studies – biomarkers & dietary inhibitors.
- Chronic diseases & developmental studies
- Embryogenesis and role of micronutrients in development of muscle and adipose tissue – relation to insulin resistance
- Role of heavy water as adjuvant in cancer chemotherapy in undernutrition
A. b. PreClinical Toxicology
- Diet formulation studies